(Image: Bongani Nkosi) MEDIA CONTACTS • Brand South Africa +27 11 483-0122 [email protected] Africans are rallying behind their national football squad with an enthusiastic show of support for “Football Tuesday”, the day Bafana Bafana take on France in their final match of the opening round of the 2010 Fifa World Cup.The initiative is modeled on Football Fridays, a long-running campaign in which South Africans have been wearing yellow Bafana shirts to work, school and college every Friday to show their support for the team.Football Tuesday was declared by Brand South Africa, in partnership with Primedia and the Southern Sun hotel group.South Africa and France are at the bottom of Group A, with one point each. Mexico and Uruguay share the top spot with thee points apiece.“Bafana Bafana may be down, but they are certainly not out,” Brand South Africa said in a statement.“A convincing win against France this Tuesday is all the team needs to progress in this first World Cup on African soil.”France drew 0-0 with Uruguay and then lost 2-0 to Mexico in their first two World Cup matches. South Africa drew 1-1 to Mexico and lost 3-0 to Uruguay.To give them a chance to go through to the second round, South Africa now need either Uruguay or Mexico – who play at the same time on the 22nd – to win. And, of course, Bafana need to beat France.“For this reason, now more than ever, we need to paint Tuesday yellow and green from all the four corners of our country in support of our national team,” said Sophie Masipa, Brand South Africa marketing manager.“The vuvuzela clarion call must bring us together as we spur our boys on their most important assignment yet.”On Tuesday, the best result for South Africa – out of many possible permutations that will allow them to go through – is for Uruguay to beat Mexico 5-0 and Bafana to take a 1-0 lead over France.
I found out last month that the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) is working on a new design manual. You certainly know of some of their other manuals: Manual J, Manual S, Manual D, Manual T… maybe even Manual P. They have quite a few others as well (H, Zr…) but now they’re working on one that will address a part of the market we encounter more and more often. And that would be low-load homes.ACCA put out a call for volunteers to work on the manual in the spring of this year. (Applications were due in April, so it’s too late to apply now.) The objectives of the new manual, at least as specified in the call for volunteers, are:Defining low-load homes’ characteristics (i.e., low infiltration, sealed-combustion appliances, ducts in conditioned space, low CFM exhaust fans, etc.).Resolving ventilation requirements (for occupant health and safety) while maintaining moisture control.Addressing ancillary dehumidification equipment for humid locations.Offering air distribution strategies for occupant comfort; especially problematic when a 2,000 square foot home (and larger) may only need one-ton of air conditioning (hence, only 400 cfm of total airflow is available). 1,500 square feet per ton of coolingAt the ASHRAE conference in Houston, I spoke with someone who’s on the task force and was told they’re defining a low-load home as a house that has a house-size-to-load ratio of 1,500 square feet per ton or greater. That sounds about right to me. At the low end, that means a 2,000 square foot house would need only about 16,000 BTU per hour of heating or cooling capacity. That’s an air conditioner or heat pump smaller than 1.5 ton!And that’s just the starting point for low-load homes. We’ve done load calculations for homes that are in the 2,500 to 3,000 square feet per ton range. (See my 2016 article with data from our results.) Here we’re talking about a 2,000 square foot home that needs less than a ton of cooling. As the objectives above point out, heating or cooling 2,000 square feet with 400 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of air flow is a challenge.This is an important issue because manufacturers have been slow to make low-capacity equipment for low-load homes. Yeah, I know what some of you are thinking: Why should manufacturers make smaller equipment since low-load homes are just a tiny niche in the larger market?Condos and apartments have low loadsAh, but that’s not really true. Low-load homes may be a tiny niche among single-family detached homes but not when you get to multifamily homes (apartments and condos). Because of all the adiabatic walls, floors, and ceilings (i.e. parts of the building enclosure with no temperature difference and thus no heat flow across them), many multifamily dwelling units hit that low-load threshold of 1,500 s.f./ton simply by meeting code. And to make it even worse, they’re smaller and thus need smaller equipment — even when they’re not that efficient.Back in 2012, Professor John Straube gave a full-day presentation on mechanical systems for low-load homes at Building Science Corporation’s Experts’ Session. He’s a Canadian and gave only a number for heating, but he defined a low-load home as one having a peak heating load of 15,000 to 30,000 BTU/hour. Most code-compliant multifamily dwellings would be there or lower.Homes meeting the Passive House standard have low loads, tooPassive House is the ultimate low-load home program. They’re all about increasing the insulation and airtightness while decreasing the heat transfer through thermal bridges. Their requirements result in homes with heating and cooling loads in the range of 2,500 to 3,000 s.f./ton.The German Passivhaus program’s peak heating load limit is 3.2 BTU/hour/s.f. Converting to s.f./(12,000 BTU/hour) yields 3,750 s.f./ton. (One ton of heating or cooling equals 12,000 BTU per hour.) I believe the PHI peak cooling load is the same with an allowance for dehumidification. PHIUS peak load limits vary by location (since they believe one size does not fit all). Peak heating load thresholds vary from less than 2 BTU/hour/s.f. to about 7 BTU/hour/s.f. Those numbers convert to 1,700 s.f./ton to 6,000 s.f./ton.The PHIUS peak cooling loads are specified two ways. There’s one limit for the Passive House calculations and a different limit for the Manual J calculations. In Anchorage, Alaska, for example, those numbers are 2.6 BTU/hour/s.f. (4,615 s.f./ton) and 3.7 BTU/hour/s.f. (3,243 s.f./ton) respectively. In Scottsdale, Arizona, the numbers are 7.9 BTU/hour/s.f. (1,519 s.f./ton) and 11.3 BTU/hour/s.f. (1,062 s.f./ton).Here in the Atlanta area, the numbers are 4.8 BTU/hour/s.f. (2,500 s.f./ton) and 6.9 BTU/hour/s.f. (1,739 s.f./ton). (Here’s the link to the PHIUS map should you want to check it out.)Heating and cooling with minisplit heat pumpsIn our HVAC design work at Energy Vanguard, our clients often end up going with something other than conventional equipment for the homes with really low loads. Ducted and ductless minisplit heat pumps, mostly Mitsubishi, are the standard choice in those cases. (Disclosure: Mitsubishi is an advertiser in the Energy Vanguard Blog.)In the world of green building, we talk about low-load homes a lot. We know it’s possible. We’ve been proving it for a long time now. But we’ve been a small niche in the market. With the pressures of improving energy codes, accelerating climate change, and increasing multifamily construction, low-load homes are making their presence known. That the HVAC contractors’ trade association, ACCA, is working on a low-load homes manual proves it. Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, building science consultant, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. You can follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard. RELATED ARTICLESChoosing HVAC Equipment for an Energy-Efficient HomeHeating a Tight, Well-Insulated HouseHeating Options for a Small HomeFinally, a Right-Sized FurnaceUsing a Tankless Water Heater for Space Heat Will Minisplits Replace Forced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems?Just Two Minisplits Heat and Cool the Whole HouseMechanical Systems for Low-Load Buildings
Let’s take a look at some creative and affordable options into finding, purchasing, and utilizing vintage lenses in your film and video projects.I recently went to a filmmaker meetup in Austin, Texas, to chat and hang out with some other videographers, documentarians, and film professionals. I’d been several times before, but was looking forward to this meetup because many of us were planning to bring our cameras and share our go-to lenses, gear, and favorite build-outs.While it was cool to try out some different rigs and talk shop with how others had problem-solved many of the same camera and lens issues (for their unique production experiences), one of the most intriguing aspects about the event was checking out everyone’s go-to lenses.And a surprising amount of those lenses were vintage.Now, I’ve shot on vintage lenses several times. However, I don’t own any myself. But to hear everyone talk, more often than not their prize lens possession was a cool vintage lens they either found in an attic, was handed down to them by a parent or grandparent, or was purchased at a thrift shop. Several others were purchased on Ebay or online elsewhere, but the majority of the videographers had a lens with some personal significance.For those who have a vintage lens in their possession, or for those looking to get one of their own, here are some of the best places and resources for finding and purchasing vintage lenses, as well as tips on how to work with them once you have one.Mom and Pop Camera StoresIf I could suggest one place every video professional should look first for vintage lenses (or cameras, gear, etc.), it’d have to be your local mom and pop camera store. These shops are constantly in danger of closing down — many have already shut their doors for good. Not only should you do your duty to support these shops while they’re still around, they actually can be treasure troves for vintage lenses, which you’d be hard pressed to find anywhere else.Sure, there might be a mark up as compared to buying online (more on that below), but you’re also getting both the convenience of walking out the door with your purchase, as well as a chance to try out your vintage lens on your camera(s) of choice. You can also spend time chatting with your resident video expert about the vintage lenses, find out more info about when and where they came from, and even advice on how this equipment might help you on your next shoot.Online and Marketplace OptionsImage by bogdandimages.Yet, for many, there are no mom and pop stores around the corner anymore. So, purchasing a vintage lens online might be your best — and only — option. There are drawbacks to finding vintage lenses online, namely that you can’t test them out on your camera or rig right away.But, if you’re patient and are willing to check back often — especially on the online auction sites — and consider making returns, you can find some quality and rare vintage lenses. Here are some different online options.Mainstream Options:EbayAmazonB&HIndustry Options:LensAuthorityKehUsedPhotoProMarketplace Options:CraigslistFacebook MarketplaceShopGoodwill Your Family’s Attic or GarageAs a result of the previously mentioned filmmaker meetup, four out of five filmmakers must apparently have filmmaking relatives with stockpiles of vintage lenses — and in some cases cameras — stashed away in attics and garages.Personally, all I’ve ever found from my parents is an old camcorder from the ‘90s, but if you do have parents or grandparents who shot amateur photography (or better yet, videography) in their youth, you might be lucky enough to stumble upon some vintage hand-me-downs that not only have their own unique bokeh and stylings, but also some cool personal stories, as well.Thrift Stores and Estate SalesImage by vetkit.Similarly, for every filmmaker heir out there, there has to be countless other attics and garages where vintage lenses are burdened upon uninterested parties, who would just as soon sell or get rid of their vintage lenses — often for bargain prices.If you consider yourself a seasoned thrifter, hitting up used goods and thrift stores can be a fun Saturday afternoon activity — diving through electronics bins looking for vintage finds. You can also make the morning rounds of estate sales at houses in affluent neighborhoods, in search of vintage lenses there, as well.Lens Mounts and AdaptersUnless you’re searching for vintage lenses to go with your vintage 16mm film camera, you’re probably going to need to research and invest in lens mounts or adapters. Here’s a good article on working with vintage lenses on modern cameras, as well as a good resource for finding the right lens adapter for you.Cover image by tomertu.For more tips and insights into working with vintage camera lenses, check out some of these articles below.Should You Use Vintage Lenses on Your Next Project?Explore the Ultimate Vintage Lens Library10 Things to Know About Shooting with Vintage LensesGear Basics: Is Filming with a Pancake Lens a Viable Option?Using Vintage Film Lenses on Micro 4/3 Cameras